Defense of Dr. Jill Biden’s Breakfast Taco Simile.

Defense of Dr. Jill Biden’s Breakfast Taco Simile,
by J.D. Meyer

Earlier this July, Dr. Jill Biden attended the Unidos US Annual Conference, but the First Lady got criticized for stating that the Hispanic community is "as unique as the breakfast tacos here in San Antonio." The previous week, President Joe Biden awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Raul Izaguirre, a past director of the program. The National Association of Hispanic Journalists (NAHJ) asserted that we are not tacos. Actually, by using the words "as" or "like," makes the statement a comparison between two things--a simile. Who remembers that old rock love song, "You are like a hurricane. There's calm in your eyes"? A metaphor is a direct comparison between things that doesn't use "as" or "like." "Her smile is sunshine" was the metaphor example used by my source for these two definitions. Being like something isn't the same as asserting something is something else, so the critique is glaringly wrong.
My initial reaction to the controversy were my memories of soft tacos at taquerias--the traditional Mexican taco. As a kid growing up in Dallas, we just had corn tacos with the hard shell. Ground beef was the filling, not the variety of stew meats. Cabbage and cilantro were unheard of as vegetable toppings. Furthermore, breakfast tacos that included eggs hadn't made it to North Texas yet. La Michoacana is the major taqueria in Texas, and I've gone to this restaurant/grocery store in Dallas, Garland, and my current home for 21 years: Tyler. 

So I asked myself, did Dr. Jill grow up in a city with many Hispanics? I bet she's from "way up north." So I went to the Britannica website for her biography. Dr. Jill grew up in Willow Grove, PA from age 8 through high school in 1969. Willow Grove is a suburb of Philadelphia with a population of only about 16,000 in 1990, and it's been shrinking since then. Its White population has stayed over 80% while its Hispanic population is under 5%. She got her Bachelors degree in 1975 at the University of Delaware, which is in Wilmington--a city of just over 30,000 that is nearly 90% White and 2.5% Hispanic. After earning two Masters degrees in Pennsylvania, she returned to the University of Delaware in 2007. She has taught high school--public and private--as well as community college. Dr. Biden's dissertation was on retention in the community college.
To conclude, Dr. Jill Biden is a life-long teacher who merely used a simile to express her joy over discovering the diversity of soft breakfast tacos in San Antonio. Assuming she's a racist is ridiculous. She's the first First Lady to keep her job while serving as the First Lady. My suggestion for her is to hook up with "AOC" Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, a Democrat congresswoman from New York who used to work at a taqueria. Keep searching the taquerias menus!

Trustworthiness: A Confucian (Ru) encounters Psalm 19.7 from a Jehovah’s Witness poster, by J.D. Meyer

Once upon a time, I strolled across the street to the nearest bus stop and saw a religious poster on a glass wall. It was from the Jehovah’s Witnesses. Psalm 19.7 states, “The law of Jehovah is trustworthy, making the inexperienced wise.” In response, I wrote the following messages: “A Confucian (Ru) 儒 says, ‘Hi.’ A person standing next to his/her word 信 is the etymology for Trustworthiness (hsin)–the completion of the other four virtues” Humaneness 仁 (ren), Manners 禮 (li), Wisdom 智(chih), and Appropriate Assertiveness 義 (i). Actually, the Chinese character for trustworthiness was the only Chinese character I wrote on the Jehovah’s Witness poster, unlike this more detailed article.

My outreach happened near Easter 2022. Later, I found an article in my living room entitled, “The Asian Renaissance: What Americans Can Learn from Confucianism,” by Jay McDaniel. The second section is “Cultural Diplomacy and Green Friendships. ” McDaniel asserts that green friendships happen when people from different cultures get together and create third spaces, where people can learn from each other’s cultures.

Mex-Pac Dishes

I’m a fan of Mexican and East Asian cuisine; in fact, I try to merge the two regions at times. I have resolved in 2022 to develop Mex-Pac Cuisine! “Pac” is short for the Pacific Ocean. I grew up enamored with Tex-Mex cooking. Then I became a fan of taquerias, a more traditional style of Mexican cuisine that is more likely to have soft tacos and more diverse meats than Tex-Mex.

My first Mex-Pac dish was pork chorizo and firm tofu. Pork chorizo has substantially less fat than beef chorizo. Furthermore, the firm tofu stretches out the strong-spiced meat. Of course, I add minced garlic and chopped onions to everything. Mexican Kim Chee was inspired by Kim Chee of Korea; it starts with Ro-Tel Diced Tomatoes & Green Chiles with Sauerkraut. Then I add chopped onion, minced garlic, cactus slices (nopalitos), and Sriracha hot sauce. Finally, ramen noodles, a Japanese invention, provide a great base for many meat and vegetables. More details later!

Kwanzaa 2021: Night 5 Purpose. Creativity Includes Flexibility, Save African-American History, Rebuild Communities.

Our current environment has been really dangerous for the study of African American history. To make a long story short, you have one group that wants to deny that slavery had bad aftermaths, and the other group claims Blacks had no success before the Civil Rights Movement. Upon my study of African American History, I included that era between slavery and the civil rights movement. Booker T. Washington was an important leader in the 19th century. He was the founder of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, a college that focused on practical education, such as agriculture. Washington’s model influenced Matthew Gaines of Brenham, Texas who was instrumental in the founding of Texas A&M. The TAMU System always included an HBCU, Prairie View A&M. Charles and Ana Spaulding of Durham, North Carolina founded the Mutual Life insurance Company. Durham also has North Carolina Central–a leading HBCU; this city was hailed as having the nicest White people in the USA by both Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois. Booker T. Washington asserted it’s more important to make a dollar than to spend it in the theater of your choice. Martin Delaney (1812-1885) was hailed as the Malcolm X of his generation, for he was the first Black field officer, a medical doctor, and a book/magazine author. The list goes on.

This 7-minute Kwanzaa talk is going to be different from my 6 previous keynote addresses between 2002-2016 since I’m going to bounce around the 7 Principles. Today is Night Five Purpose. We planned on having a more discussion-style format this year, partly because COVID led to our program’s cancellation last year. Kwanzaa 2013 was another discussion-style format too. Creativity in Kwanzaa focuses on applicability, the “get-it-done” aspect of creativity. Leave the community better than when you found it. Gifted & Talented Education notes there are three other aspects of creativity: originality, fluency (lots of ideas), and flexibility (ability to adjust). Urban Studies scholar, Dr. Richard Florida of the University of Toronto, observes that thriving downtown areas need the 4 T’s: talent, tolerance, technology, and territorial assets. Hopefully, my talk will show flexibility successfully.

Faith is traditionally addressed in Tyler by Reverend Reginald Garrett. I’m going to say just one thing about Faith, and it’s from a Chinese viewpoint. The etymology of faith (hsin) is a person standing next to his/her word; thus, it’s synonymous with faithfulness. It’s the 5th and final virtue, meaning you perform the rest quite well. Meanwhile, in Christianity faith means you have the right opinion of God and the universe, so you may be able to get away with some stuff, some of the time.

The Seven Principles of Kwanzaa should have appeal to all people, regardless of race: 1. Unity, 2. Self-Determination, 3. Collective Work & Responsibility, 4. Cooperative Economics, 5. Purpose, 6. Creativity, and 7. Faith. You could cheer for your hometown’s success in an economic plan. Remember when the Moore Grocery Lofts at the northern edge of downtown won a state award for Best Adaptive Reuse? Several years ago, I had the insight that Kwanzaa is the effort to serve as a public intellectual. A public intellectual can be defined as one who brings their scholarship to societal issues outside their formal expertise.

Night 4, Cooperative Economics featured Derrick Choice, I was really glad to hear Derrick Choice talk about North Tyler in the pre-integration era when businesses were strong. Mr. Choice is a former North Tyler congressman among other positions. You can find a YouTube video by the late councilman, Ed Moore, when he described “The Cuts,” a major business area in North Tyler. Desegregation led to many businesses moving south. Many years ago, I even interviewed an old neighbor about sadness concerning desegregation.

Recently, I have done some research at the City of Tyler website and was pointed to Planning and Development websites, particularly Commercial Use Categories. As someone who rides the bus, I have the luxury of staring at the side of the road, but I see the same abandoned buildings in business areas/shopping centers for years. What if shopping centers could come together as a group and tell the weary local real estate agents who they’d like to recruit? For example, if we already got a Whataburger, don’t look for another burger restaurant. If we already got a Cefco, don’t get a dollar store that sells beer, go for a Dollar Tree. So, my comments during Mr. Choice’s talk for Cooperative Economics are relevant to tonight’s talk about Purpose.

I found about Kwanzaa when I was an elementary substitute teacher in the Garland ISD. It helped relieve a lack of books about and for little Black kids. Later, as a Developmental English/Writing instructor at Texas College, the HBCU in North Tyler form 2001-06, I usually assigned a Black History essay, and it became a chapter section in my ongoing textbook. Regardless of type of essay, I encouraged students to choose a happy story, so they’d be more likely to finish their essay. Essay prompts often take a format like, “Describe your favorite or worst job.” Furthermore, maybe you could just pick an upper quartile fun job, so you don’t have to spend a bunch of time figuring out what was “Number 1.”

SOL Tuesday: Kwanzaa 2021–Rescuing African-American History: Success Before the Civil Rights Movement, Booker T. Washington & the Rest, by J.D. Meyer

We’re having Kwanzaa again in Tyler, TX, as it was canceled last year because of the COVID-19. The director invited me to help set up at the library auditorium and talk to a local conservativeTV station. I was warned that much of the questioning would likely revolve around, “Why would a White person attend Kwanzaa? (OK, 7/8 White).” The seven principles of Kwanzaa are (1) Unity, (2) Self-Determination, (3) Collective Work & Responsibility, (4) Cooperative Economics, (5) Purpose, (6) Creativity, and (7) Faith. These are universal concepts that anyone could study, enjoy, and live by. Furthermore, it’s easy to compliment your home city’s achievements with this analytical tool. I believe Kwanzaa enables us to serve as a public intellectual–someone who is trying to use his/her education to benefit society in areas outside one’s areas of expertise.

I’ve always had multicultural interests, starting with Japan and Pre-Columbian history in grade school. My interdisciplinary M.S. thesis was, “Approaching Cognitive-Behavioral and Existential Therapy through Neo-Confucianism.” My favorite music interests have moved from soul to melodic heavy metal to Tejano, and I still like them all. Today was my sixth anniversary of joining a Facebook closed group: Friends from A-Far: A Confucianism group! (We prefer the term, Ru. Missionaries named us after Confucius). I’ve been a taqueria fan for decades.

I first learned about Kwanzaa when I was a substitute teacher (among other jobs) in the Garland ISD during the late ’90s. Since I usually subbed in elementary grades, I found some Kwanzaa books for young kids. Later, I became a full-time Developmental English instructor at Texas College, the HBCU in Tyler, from 2001-06. I wrote and copyrighted a textbook for my course, which included a chapter on African-American Studies. Sometimes, I gave a Black History essay assignment. I encouraged the students to choose a happy topic, so they wouldn’t get depressed and not finish their assignment. I’ve been the main speaker for six Kwanzaa nights between 2002-2016, as well as some general lectures on Kwanzaa elsewhere. Reverend Reginald Garrett always does Faith night, the seventh and final night of Kwanzaa.

This year, I already had a topic for a Kwanzaa talk, centered around discussing African-American success after slavery but before the civil rights movement. African-American history has rarely been so endangered in recent memory. The radical political right claims that we must not teach Critical Race Theory in elementary or secondary school. Actually, it’s a law school topic; that is graduate college. The warning seems to be code for not admitting that slavery happened.

On the other hand, my approach is influenced by an article by Elizabeth Wright, “Keeping the Spotlight on Failure: How to Make Sure the Patient Doesn’t Get Well.” Ms. Wright explains that Black history is normally taught as (1) uprooting from Africa into slavery, (2) freedom followed by segregation, and Jim Crow laws, and (3) civil rights leaders bring integration and success. However, there were many successful entrepreneurs and educators in the segregated era. Alas, the website is gone! Booker T. Washington asserted that the ability to make a dollar was important than being able to spend it in the theater of your choice. Economic success would precede change in the law. Booker T. Washington became the first president of Tuskegee University in Alabama. The practical education focus was agriculture and engineering. This led to the Morrill Act that provided state funding for colleges in each state specializing in fields such as agriculture, engineering, and more. Matthew Gaines of Brenham, Texas–a Black man–was instrumental in the founding of Texas A&M. Charles and Ana Spaulding founded the Mutual Life Insurance Company of Durham, North Carolina–a city hailed by BTW and W.E.B. DuBois as the city with the nicest White folks in the USA, together with North Carolina Central–a leading HBCU. Martin Delaney (1812-1885) was hailed as the Malcolm X of the 19th Century, for he was the first Black field officer, a medical doctor, and a book and magazine author! The list goes on. My approach this time could probably be classified as Black Conservative.

“From a Black Hole: Transformed to a New Life,” by Mayor Don Warren (reported by J.D. Meyer)

Don Warren–Mayor of Tyler, Texas—delivered a speech at the Reformation House of Prayer (RHOP) entitled, “From a Black Hole: Transformed to a New Life,” on August 16, 2021. Mayor Warren described how becoming Christian enabled him to switch careers and regain success, including moving all the way in City of Tyler government. He used to have bad dreams that he’d go to a black hole during the 1986 oil industry crisis. Mr. Warren got into debt and got separated from his wife. So, he started a seafood restaurant that he ran for ten months. Then he asked for Christ’s help, got a divorce, and a new house. He was single for five months. He started playing the piano professionally as LOMOC (Little Ol’ Me Oil Company). Don married his second wife in 1994 after dating only six weeks. He worked 12 hours per day. Then he quit his job and golfed and watched movies for a year. He took a test at Green Acres Baptist Church, the largest church in all of East Texas, and it revealed he showed mercy. 

Now Don turned his interest to the City of Tyler. He worked with a homeless organization, as well as a planning and zoning program with the city government. Mayor Warren was Councilman Warren first. Don helped raise $1.2 M for the renovation of Bergfeld Park, which included a new playground, amphitheater, and tennis court. He led “For All Tyler,” the development of Affordable Housing in Downtown and North Tyler. Tyler had a very cold winter snap in mid-February 2021. Some churches were made into warming centers. A generator on a Brookshire’s Grocery Store got a nursing home turned back on after the electric grid failure.  

Mayor Warren turned his talk to more religious issues. All city council meetings begin with prayer for “In God We Trust.” It keeps things in check. Don Warren gave lists of bad and good words. Bad words include ego, power, disconnected, disingenuous, boastful, angry, and resentment. Sadly, Don’s father was a politician turned drunk, who broke his neck and got divorced. Here are the good words: compassionate, content, accessible, connected, relationships, caring, authentic, prayerful, humility, patience, listen, positive. Here are prayer points for city leaders. God, Family, City. To deal with conflict and realize we can’t make everyone happy. Patience means one is a good listener before speaking. Authenticity means to be ourselves, not chameleons. Finally, for positivity, don’t let others bring us down.  I’ve known Mayor Don Warren since he was a councilman, and I gave him the nickname, Ubiquitous since you see him all the time in Tyler.

Stop Asian Hate

To protest the Anti-Asian movement, I wore the following to Stanley’s Famous Bar-B-Q on Saturday afternoon: (1) my new red Sriracha hot sauce T-shirt, (2) a black bandanna with yin-yang symbols, and (3) my old maroon half-length kimono with the dragon on the back. …..I became a fan of Japanese culture in 3rd grade. I began studying Neo-Confucianism for my M.S. nearly 40 years ago. I taught South Vietnamese refugees ESOL in the late 90s–still have a full-sized flag. It looks like the Cefco logo!

Here’s my response to the CNN special: “Afraid: Fear in America’s Communities of Color.” Y’all hang in there. Multicultural White folks can relate to your grief. I’m happy to be a member of two private Confucian (Ru) groups (related thesis in 1984). My teaching audience was usually Black or Mexican-American. Tejano, soul, and melodic heavy metal rock! #StopAsianHate.

Martin Luther King Day 2021 in Tyler, Texas, by J.D. Meyer

This year’s Martin Luther King Jr. Day was held in the front yard of the new location for the Texas African-American Museum–coincidentally on MLK Blvd. in a former fire house. Martin Luther King BLVD is the major East-West Street in North Tyler, a predominantly Black neighborhood in Tyler, which includes Texas College–an HBCU and the first institute of higher education in this city.  The keynote speaker was Rev. Dr. Orenthia Mason.

The opening prayer was delivered by Bishop Laramie Jackson. It included a bridge to the past and a bridge to bring people together—struggles and achievements. Demerick Tezino sang “Amazing Grace.” LaToyia Jordan offered welcome before Gloria Washington announced the occasion. She reminisced about an early MLK Day observation in Jasper, Texas–25 years ago after an ice storm. “So we may be outdoors, socially distant during this coronavirus pandemic, but it was a rougher to hold a big event back then.” Plenty of chuckles responded.

Today included a celebration for having a new-and-improved location for the African-American Museum; it used to be further north in an abandoned elementary school, but now it’s on a major street. The late councilman, Ed Moore, was instrumental in getting the deal between the city and the museum, and a cornerstone has been planned in his honor. Shirley McKellar has become his successor as councilwoman. Some reconstruction is planned, and they will need donations.

Pastor Nicholas McGrew noted that he memorized the famous, “I Have a Dream” speech –so did his daughter! “We stand in the shadow of the Emancipation Proclamation, but 100 years later we still stand in an island of poverty in an ocean of the rich. To be satisfied, we need to have mobility, vote, and have justice. We still have the dream despite frustrations. Let us be judged by the content of our character; that’s one of MLK’s most famous sayings. Let freedom ring! We need to have integration of races and creeds. Then we’ll be free at last.”

Ms. Verlinda Stanton sang, “”Lift Every Voice and Sing,” the African-American National Anthem. She has worked with such stars as George Clinton and James Earl Jones. She has sung at an event for President Barack Obama too. 

Stanley Cofer introduced the keynote speaker, Dr. Orenthia Mason. He observed “the integrated crowd as a dream of Martin Luther King. Esteem others higher than yourself; it’s like giving flowers to those who are still alive. All men are created equal.” Rev. Mason taught in Tyler ISD for 27 years. She was also a principal and on several boards. She retired as minister of St. James Christian Methodist Episcopal (CME) church. By the way, Texas College is a CME institution of higher education.

Reverend Orenthia Mason gave a scholarly and “hard-hitting” speech. She noted our continued struggle for freedom and congratulated the museum and city. She asked, “What condition is our condition since MLK’s, ‘I Have a Dream’ speech?  We live through recurring cycle of racism, extremists, and hatred. Malcolm X told us to face reality, not a blurred version of the truth. Justice, whoever says it, benefits humanity.” To me, that sounds like a great critique of the ad hominem argument; ignore the idea because of disliking the speaker. Robert Kennedy asserted, “We should make an effort to understand others,” according to Rev. Mason.

She continued, “What condition is our condition in? When minorities vote more than average, it’s labeled as fraud. We are in perilous times.” Black kids are being threatened again. Reverend Mason recalled walking to school in groups with other Black kids, back in the 60s. That was because they could get attacked anyway—sometimes with baseball bats! She recalled, “You had to be better than best.  How about the average? The struggles and heart aches of the past are still being felt. We have a long way to go to reach the Promised Land. “

Reflecting on the present, Rev. Mason lamented, “Artifacts of the past include menacing white drivers ‘varooming’ their cars behind her on South Broadway! Many Tylerites don’t even know where Texas College is located.” {It’s located at 2404 N. Grand Avenue, north of MLK Blvd]. She felt more respected during segregation. “The ‘haves’ have more. We’re in the ‘midnight of life,’ ‘strangers in a strange land.’ Let’s sit down at the Welcome Table. Listen; look at character, intellect, and ability. All of us should be who we ought to be.”

Rev. Mason is proud to be a resident of north Tyler. She has been a member of Leadership Tyler, an integrated local think-tank. “We’ve never been more divided in the USA, but we’ll overcome some day. United we stand; divided we fall.”  She concluded with a quote by Henry David Thoreau, “It’s never too late to give up prejudice. Speak and listen.”

After another excellent song by Demetrick Tezino, Clarence Shackelford showed a model of the Martin Luther King, Jr. statue in Washington, DC. Leroy Francis donated the statue. Then Mr. Shackelford announced the Award Presentations. Mr. Shackelford, a noted photographer and Army veteran, is the founder of the Texas African-American Museum.  Dr. Donna Pitts, a dentist won an award. She’s a graduate of Prairie View A&M and Howard; both are HBCUs. Our new Vice-President, Kamala Harris, is a Howard grad too; it’s located in Washington, DC. Dr. Pitts works for Franklin Dentists in Tyler, and she’s a member of the Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority (pink and green colors). Vicki Betts, a librarian, won an award for historical research. (By the way, she’s a little White lady). Rodney L. Atkins also won an award for historical research by writing two books: Remembering When We Were Colored in Tyler, Texas and The History of African-American Teachers in Tyler ISD. He’s connected with the Victory Temple Church.Andre Crawford won the Golden Eagle Award for being the current director of the Tyler Barber College—the first Black institution of its kind in the USA! Tyler Barber College spread to other states. Barber shops have a long history of being community gathering places in Black neighborhoods.

Mayor Don Warren was invited to give some comments. Mayor Warren noted that when he saw an episode of Good Morning, America, kids quoted Martin Luther King, and then asked, “What’s wrong with America?” Mayor Warren, previously a long-time councilman, “wants to work with all of Tyler, so it will be unified and peaceful. “

The program concluded with miscellaneous remarks. A new Councilman for Section 1 said he used to be a fire chief in Tyler. Ed Thompson will do the construction work, and LLC will be the architect on the new museum. It is 5000 square feet—far bigger than the previous museum. The goal is $300K in renovations, but some of the money would go to outdoors construction–such as a playground and outdoor dining area. I suggested building an urban garden to Stanley Cofer, and I later sent my article on the topic. Lunch trucks would be invited as two were here for the festivities. Somebody was selling an African-American News Journal, based on newspaper articles for over a century. If the Texas African-American Museum gets 10K likes on Facebook, then they can have some advertisements there. TAAM is up to 5K likes at the time of the MLK Festival. Sadly, a minister noted that his kids were threatened in Whitehouse lately, a town just southeast of Tyler.

The 2021 Martin Luther King Day celebration was really different this year because of acquiring a better museum and having a North Tyler program. Due to the pandemic, there wasn’t the usual march down Broadway Avenue, followed by the program at Immaculate Conception Catholic Cathedral. Nevertheless, this year’s program was very uplifting and indicated real opportunities for Northside Revitalization that is now being pursued by the City of Tyler.  

Footnote: You can check out the edited version that was published in The Tyler Loop also. Thanks to Jane Neal. It’s posted at the top under the title.

Kwanzaa Reflections in 2020, by J.D. Meyer

We aren’t meeting in the Tyler, Texas Library in 2020 for Kwanzaa because of the coronavirus pandemic. I’ve been delivering official Kwanzaa speeches off-and-on since 2002—all but Faith Night out of seven nights. Of course, I check out Rev. Reginald Garrett for that last night.  I’ve published articles as well over the last couple of decades, and I’ve given some general Kwanzaa talks

But we need to do som’n in cyberspace for Kwanzaa. I want to go in the direction of health, specifically the OTC vitamins/minerals that I take on a daily basis. We need to boost our immune system, in case we catch the pandemic COVID19 virus!  OK, I’ve been on SSDI for a while for COPD, and I was invited to join the local Community Health Workers (CHW) coalition because of my Word Press articles and whatnot.

Here’s a great article about four great vitamins to boost your immune system: Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Zinc and something called Quercetin. It’s a well-known fact that Vitamin D is activated by sunlight darkening your skin. So darker people need more Vitamin D.

Not all multiple vitamins are alike. Spring Valley Super Vitamin B-Complex has 9 vitamins–including C & B12. Nature Made B-Complex has 6 vitamins–including C. Ocuvite for macular degeneration has zinc, among 6 vitamins and minerals plus lutein.

Irregular Verbs Spreadsheets

All 4 Principal Parts Different

 IRREGULAR VERBS  All 4 Principal Parts Different Part 1                              . 
 PresentPresent ParticiplePastPast Participle  
            IRREGULAR VERBS              All 4 principal parts different                          Part 2 
 PresentPresent ParticiplePastPast Participle 
35.saw (cut boards)    
 IRREGULAR VERBSSame Past & Past Participle3 Forms—chart 3    
 PresentPresent ParticiplePast/Past Participle
 IRREGULAR VERBSSame Past/Past Participle3 forms:  Part 2—chart 4        
 PresentPresent ParticiplePast/Past Participle

Note:  * = There are two spellings for the past and past participle of these words.

 IRREGULAR VERBSOnly 2 Forms—chart 5
 Present/Past/Past ParticiplePresent Participle

Note:  The word, “read,” appears to have only two forms visually, so it’s listed in this chart. Actually, “read,” has three different sounds in its principal parts because read has a long “e” in the present and a short “e” in the past

 Very Irregular Verbs!Same Present and Past Participle 3 Forms— chart 6
 PresentPresent ParticiplePastPast Participle
 Extremely Irregular Verb!!Same Present and Past  
 PresentPresent ParticiplePastPast Participle